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Mint a Specific NFT

· 17 min read
Mordi Goldstein

Use signature-based minting to allow users to select which 1-of-1 NFT to mint

Introduction

In this guide, we are going to use Next.js to allow users to pick which 1 of 1 NFT they want to mint! To do this, we will create an NFT collection, build the frontend for users to view the collection, and allow users to select an NFT for minting. We will use the thirdweb NFT Collection contract which allows you to mint 1 of 1 NFTs. You can find a version of this project deployed with Vercel here and all the source code here.

We will use signature-based minting, which can be used to create unique signatures or IDs that can be given out or sold. Only users with a unique signature will be able to mint or claim the NFT. This means that we can display un-minted NFTs to the user and, when they select which 1-of-1 NFT to mint, we can generate a signature and mint the specific NFT for them. Minting specific NFTs from a 1-of-1 collection is awesome! Let’s go 🚀

Overview

Here is the plan:

  1. Set up the project
  2. Add a connect button
  3. Backend:
    1. Handle GET requests and return the NFTs
    2. Check for NFTs which have already been minted so that they can be displayed as unavailable
    3. Handle POST requests and generate a signature so that an NFT can be minted
  4. Frontend:
    1. Call the backend to fetch the NFTs and then display them
    2. Mint an NFT

1. Set up

The easiest way to set up a Next.js app is to use the thirdweb template which can be found here. You can “Use this template” and create your own repo, which can be cloned and opened in your code editor.

Install the required dependencies:

npm install

Then, run the development server:

npm run dev

Open http://localhost:3000 with your browser to see the result. At the moment, all that your app allows is for you to connect your wallet.

For this project, we will use Chakra to style our components. You can install these dependencies:

npm install @chakra-ui/react @emotion/[email protected]^11 @emotion/[email protected]^11 [email protected]^6

Don’t forget to add the ChakraProvider, afterwhich, your _app.tsx (in the pages folder) should look like this:

_app.tsx
import type { AppProps } from "next/app";
import { ChainId, ThirdwebProvider } from "@thirdweb-dev/react";
import { ChakraProvider } from "@chakra-ui/react";

// This is the chainId your dApp will work on.
const activeChainId = ChainId.Rinkeby;

function MyApp({ Component, pageProps }: AppProps) {
return (
<ThirdwebProvider desiredChainId={activeChainId}>
<ChakraProvider>
<Component {...pageProps} />
</ChakraProvider>
</ThirdwebProvider>
);
}

export default MyApp;

NB: If you open _app.tsx, you’ll see that you can set the chain on which you want your app to work. In this tutorial, we are working on the Rinkeby testnet so we have changed it from this:

_app.tsx
// This is the chainId your dApp will work on.
const activeChainId = ChainId.Mainnet;

to this:

_app.tsx
// This is the chainId your dApp will work on.
const activeChainId = ChainId.Rinkeby;

Awesome🔥  Let’s create some NFTs

2. Connect button

We can use the thirdweb useAddress and useMetamask to easily create a connect button. Check for a connected address, add the connect button and style with Chakra. Here is what your pages/index.tsx should look like:

index.tsx
import { Flex, Heading, Button } from "@chakra-ui/react";
import { useAddress, useMetamask } from "@thirdweb-dev/react";
import type { NextPage } from "next";

const Home: NextPage = () => {
// Use address and connect with metamask
const address = useAddress();
const connectWithMetamask = useMetamask();

return (
<div>
{address ? (
<Flex mt="5rem" alignItems="center" flexDir="column">
<Heading mb="2.5rem">Connected!</Heading>
</Flex>
) : (
<Flex mt="5rem" alignItems="center" flexDir="column">
<Button size="lg" colorScheme="pink" onClick={connectWithMetamask}>
Connect Metamask Wallet
</Button>
</Flex>
)}
</div>
);
};

export default Home;

3. Backend

Create an api folder inside of your pages folder and, in it, create a new file called get-nfts.ts. This file will be the backend where the NFT data can be stored and the signature generation can happen.

Handle GET requests and return the NFTs

Start by creating a function called handler and add an array of NFT metadata. This array of NFT metadata is for all NFTs that you want to be available for users to mint (they are currently un-minted NFTs). You can have as many or as few as you want and the structure should follow the example below.

Add a switch statement that can return the NFTs if the api receives a GET request. The get-nfts.ts file should now look like this:

get-nfts.ts
import type { NextApiRequest, NextApiResponse } from "next";

export default async function handler(
req: NextApiRequest,
res: NextApiResponse,
) {
let nfts = [
{
id: 0, // Unique ID for each NFT
name: "NFT 1", // A name for the NFT
description: "This is our first amazing NFT", // Description for the NFT
url: "https://bafybeihgfxd5f5sqili34vyjyfai6kezlagrya43e6bkgw6hnxucxug5ya.ipfs.nftstorage.link/", // URL for the NFT image
price: 0.01, // The price of the NFT
minted: false, // A variable to indicate if the NFT has been minted
},
// Add more NFTs here...
];

switch (req.method) {
case "GET":
res.status(200).json(nfts);
break;
default:
res.status(200).json(nfts);
}
}

Check for NFTs which have already been minted so that they can be displayed as unavailable

The NFTs we are displaying are not minted yet but as users mint NFTs we want to mark each minted NFT as unavailable so that so nobody else can mint it. This is a little complicated but very important because this is a 1-of-1 collection. Let’s break it down.

  • You probably noticed that in the array of NFT metadata we created above, there is a boolean variable called minted for each NFT which indicates whether or not that NFT has been minted. Okay. We have a way of indicating which NFTs have been minted but how can we keep this indicator up to date with which NFTs have been minted?
  • When we receive a GET request, instead of simply returning the array of NFT metadata, we will first call our collection contract and get a list of all the NFTs that have been minted. Then, we can compare that list to our array of NFT metadata and mark each NFT that appears in the list from the contract as unavailable in the array of NFT metadata (ie: change the minted variable from false to true).
  • The obvious question is how will we compare the NFTs in the list from the contract with the NFTs in the metadata array?
  • When we mint NFTs we are able to add custom attributes to them. This means that for each NFT that we mint, we can add a custom attribute called id and set that attribute equal to the position of that NFT in the metadata array (we will point this out when we mint the NFTs).
  • Our final step is to look at the id custom attributes for each NFT in the list returned from our contract and set the minted variable of the NFT at the position of id in the NFT metadata array to true.

Don’t forget that to interact with the collection contract, we must import the thirdweb SDK and initialize it.

The comments in the code below should help if you get stuck. After implementing everything above, get-nfts.ts should look like this:

get-nfts.ts
import type { NextApiRequest, NextApiResponse } from "next";
import { ThirdwebSDK, NFTMetadataOwner } from "@thirdweb-dev/sdk";
// We use dotenv to securely manage our private key.
// If you deploy this project to Vercel, use their environment variable management instead
import dotenv from "dotenv";

dotenv.config();

export default async function handler(
req: NextApiRequest,
res: NextApiResponse,
) {
let nfts = [
{
id: 0, // Unique ID for each NFT corresponding to its position in the array
name: "NFT 1", // A name for the NFT
description: "This is our first amazing NFT", // Description for the NFT
url: "https://bafybeihgfxd5f5sqili34vyjyfai6kezlagrya43e6bkgw6hnxucxug5ya.ipfs.nftstorage.link/", // URL for the NFT image
price: 0.01, // The price of the NFT
minted: false, // A variable to indicate if the NFT has been minted
},
// Add more NFTs here...
];

// Connect to thirdweb SDK
const sdk = ThirdwebSDK.fromPrivateKey(
// Your wallet private key
process.env.PRIVATE_KEY as string,
"rinkeby",
);

// Set variable for the NFT collection contract address which can be found after creating an NFT collection in the dashboard
const nftCollectionAddress = "<CONTRACT_ADDRESS>";

// Initialize the NFT collection with the contract address
const nftCollection = sdk.getNFTCollection(nftCollectionAddress);

switch (req.method) {
case "GET":
try {
// Get all the NFTs that have been minted from the contract
const mintedNfts: NFTMetadataOwner[] = await nftCollection?.getAll();
// If no NFTs have been minted, return the array of NFT metadata
if (!mintedNfts) {
res.status(200).json(nfts);
}
// If there are NFTs that have been minted, go through each of them
mintedNfts.forEach((nft) => {
if (nft.metadata.attributes) {
// Find the id attribute of the current NFT
// @ts-expect-error
const positionInMetadataArray = nft.metadata.attributes.id;
// Change the minted status of the NFT metadata at the position of ID in the NFT metadata array
nfts[positionInMetadataArray].minted = true;
}
});
} catch (error) {
console.error(error);
}
res.status(200).json(nfts);
break;
default:
res.status(200).json(nfts);
}
}

Handle POST requests and generate a signature so that an NFT can be minted

The final step we need to take to complete our backend is to generate a unique signature for minting an NFT. Allocating a specific NFT to a user is a 2 step process - signature generation and minting. The signature generation happens in the backend and the minting happens in the frontend.

The signature generation has to happen in the backend because only the wallet which owns the contract can generate a signature.

We will add a case to our switch statement to handle POST requests and we will use the id of the NFT to mint and the address of the user, both of which must be provided in the request.

Please follow along in the comments below to see how this is implemented:

get-nfts.ts
switch (req.method) {
case "GET":
try {
const mintedNfts: NFTMetadataOwner[] = await nftCollection?.getAll();

if (!mintedNfts) {
res.status(200).json(nfts);
}

mintedNfts.forEach((nft) => {
if (nft.metadata.attributes) {
// @ts-expect-error
const positionInMetadataArray = nft.metadata.attributes.id;
nfts[positionInMetadataArray].minted = true;
}
});
} catch (error) {
console.error(error);
}
res.status(200).json(nfts);
break;
case "POST":
// Get ID of the NFT to mint and address of the user from request body
const { id, address } = req.body;

// Ensure that the requested NFT has not yet been minted
if (nfts[id].minted === true) {
res.status(400).json({ message: "Invalid request" });
}

// Allow the minting to happen anytime from now
const startTime = new Date(0);

// Find the NFT to mint in the array of NFT metadata using the ID
const nftToMint = nfts[id];

// Set up the NFT metadata for signature generation
const metadata: PayloadToSign721 = {
metadata: {
name: nftToMint.name,
description: nftToMint.description,
image: nftToMint.url,
// Set the id attribute which we use to find which NFTs have been minted
attributes: { id },
},
price: nftToMint.price,
mintStartTime: startTime,
to: address,
};

try {
const response = await nftCollection?.signature.generate(metadata);

// Respond with the payload and signature which will be used in the frontend to mint the NFT
res.status(201).json({
payload: response?.payload,
signature: response?.signature,
});
} catch (error) {
res.status(500).json({ error });
console.error(error);
}
break;
default:
res.status(200).json(nfts);
}

Awesome! Our backend is complete! We can accept GET and POST requests to return the un-minted NFTs which need to be displayed in the frontend. We can mark the NFTs that have already minted as minted and generate a unique signature to allow for signature-based minting🎉  Let’s jump into the frontend!

4. Frontend

Our frontend will have one component and it will call our backend to fetch the NFTs and allow a user to select an NFT for minting. Once the user selects an NFTs for minting, we will send a POST request to the backend to generate a unique signature and then the user will be able to mint the selected NFT. We will also add in a check to ensure that the user is on the correct chain and we will display a loading message when we are fetching or minting NFTs. Let’s do it🚀

The first step is to create a new folder, called components, at the root of your project. In that folder, you can create a new file called Nfts.tsx. Add the following imports and skeleton function and then get started with the first part of our frontend.

Nfts.tsx
import {
Box,
SimpleGrid,
Button,
Flex,
Image,
Heading,
} from "@chakra-ui/react";
import { useEffect, useState } from "react";
import {
useAddress,
useNFTCollection,
useMetamask,
useChainId,
ChainId,
} from "@thirdweb-dev/react";

const Nfts = () => {
return <div></div>;
};

export default Nfts;

Call the backend to fetch the NFTs and then display them

To fetch the NFTs from the backend we can use the useEffect hook. We add some state variables to track when we are loading, store the NFTs and confirm that the NFTs have been fetched. Then add the function to fetch the NFTs and call it in the useEffect hook.

Nfts.tsx
const Nfts = () => {
// State to set when we are loading
const [loading, setLoading] = useState(false);
// State for nft metadata
const [nftMetadata, setNftMetadata] = useState([null]);
// State to track if the NFTs have been fetched
const [fetchedNfts, setFetchedNfts] = useState(false);

// Function to fetch NFTs from the backend
const fetchNfts = async () => {
try {
const response = await fetch("/api/get-nfts", {
method: "GET",
headers: {
"Content-Type": "application/json",
},
});
const data = await response.json();
// Save NFTs to the state variable
setNftMetadata(data);
// Record that the NFTs have been fetched
setFetchedNfts(true);
} catch (error) {
console.error(error);
}
};
// useEffect hook to get NFTs from API
useEffect(() => {
fetchNfts();
}, [loading]);

return <div></div>;
};

Once we have the NFTs, we can display them using the components we imported from Chakra. Notice that we are checking if the NFTs have been fetched using our state variable and display a Loading... message if they haven’t been fetched. The return statement uses a map method to iterate through the array of NFT metadata that was returned from the backend and it now looks like this:

Nfts.tsx
if (fetchedNfts) {
return (
<SimpleGrid m="2rem" justifyItems="center" columns={3} spacing={10}>
{nftMetadata?.map((nft: any) => (
<Box
key={nftMetadata.indexOf(nft)}
maxW="sm"
borderWidth="1px"
borderRadius="lg"
overflow="hidden"
>
<Image width="30rem" height="15rem" src={nft?.url} alt="NFT image" />

<Flex p="1rem" alignItems="center" flexDir="column">
<Box
mt="1"
fontWeight="bold"
lineHeight="tight"
fontSize="20"
isTruncated
m="0.5rem"
>
{nft?.name}
</Box>

<Box fontSize="16" m="0.5rem">
{nft?.description}
</Box>
<Box fontSize="16" m="0.5rem">
{nft?.price}
</Box>
{loading ? (
<p>Minting... You will need to approve 1 transaction</p>
) : nft?.minted ? (
<b>This NFT has already been minted</b>
) : (
<Button
colorScheme="purple"
m="0.5rem"
onClick={() => mintNft(nft?.id)}
>
Mint
</Button>
)}
</Flex>
</Box>
))}
</SimpleGrid>
);
} else {
return <Heading>Loading...</Heading>;
}

One final feature to add before we implement our mintNft function is a check to ensure that the user is connected to the correct network. Just above the return statement, we can use thirdweb hooks to easily confirm the chain to which the user is connected.

Nfts.tsx
// Use address and connect with metamask
const address = useAddress();
const connectWithMetamask = useMetamask();

// Get the id of the chain that the user is connected to
const chainId = useChainId();

// Require that the user is connected to Rinkeby
if (chainId !== ChainId.Rinkeby) {
return (
<Flex mt="5rem" alignItems="center" flexDir="column">
<Heading fontSize="md">Please connect to the Rinkeby Testnet</Heading>
</Flex>
);
}

Mint an NFT

Well done! You’ve made it this far and we have one final step to complete this project. Our backend gives us the ability to generate a unique signature that can be used for minting. We can use this in the frontend to mint an NFT. Our mintNft function is simple. We must:

  • Connect to the contract
  • Use a POST request with the id of the NFT to be minted and the address of the user to get the signature from the backend
  • Mint that NFT with the payload and signature that are returned from the backend.

Once this has been implemented, Nfts.tsx should look like this:

Nfts.tsx
import {
Box,
SimpleGrid,
Button,
Flex,
Image,
Heading,
} from "@chakra-ui/react";
import { useEffect, useState } from "react";
import {
useAddress,
useNFTCollection,
useMetamask,
useChainId,
ChainId,
} from "@thirdweb-dev/react";

const Nfts = () => {
const [loading, setLoading] = useState(false);
const [nftMetadata, setNftMetadata] = useState([null]);
const [fetchedNfts, setFetchedNfts] = useState(false);

const fetchNfts = async () => {
try {
const response = await fetch("/api/get-nfts", {
method: "GET",
headers: {
"Content-Type": "application/json",
},
});
const data = await response.json();
setNftMetadata(data);
setFetchedNfts(true);
} catch (error) {
console.error(error);
}
};

useEffect(() => {
fetchNfts();
}, [loading]);

// You can find your contract address in your dashboard after you have created an NFT Collection contract
const nftCollectionAddress = "<CONTRACT_ADDRESS>";

// Connect to contract using the address
const nftCollection = useNFTCollection(nftCollectionAddress);

// Function which generates signature and mints NFT
const mintNft = async (id: number) => {
setLoading(true);
connectWithMetamask;

try {
// Call API to generate signature and payload for minting
const response = await fetch("/api/get-nfts", {
method: "POST",
headers: {
"Content-Type": "application/json",
},
body: JSON.stringify({ id, address }),
});

if (response) {
connectWithMetamask;
const data = await response.json();
const mintInput = {
signature: data.signature,
payload: data.payload,
};

await nftCollection?.signature.mint(mintInput);

alert("NFT successfully minted!");
setLoading(false);
}
} catch (error) {
setLoading(false);
console.log(error);
alert("Failed to mint NFT!");
}
};

const address = useAddress();
const connectWithMetamask = useMetamask();

const chainId = useChainId();

if (chainId !== ChainId.Rinkeby) {
return (
<Flex mt="5rem" alignItems="center" flexDir="column">
<Heading fontSize="md">Please connect to the Rinkeby Testnet</Heading>
</Flex>
);
}

if (fetchedNfts) {
return (
<SimpleGrid m="2rem" justifyItems="center" columns={3} spacing={10}>
{nftMetadata?.map((nft: any) => (
<Box
key={nftMetadata.indexOf(nft)}
maxW="sm"
borderWidth="1px"
borderRadius="lg"
overflow="hidden"
>
<Image
width="30rem"
height="15rem"
src={nft?.url}
alt="NFT image"
/>

<Flex p="1rem" alignItems="center" flexDir="column">
<Box
mt="1"
fontWeight="bold"
lineHeight="tight"
fontSize="20"
isTruncated
m="0.5rem"
>
{nft?.name}
</Box>

<Box fontSize="16" m="0.5rem">
{nft?.description}
</Box>
<Box fontSize="16" m="0.5rem">
{nft?.price}
</Box>
{loading ? (
<p>Minting... You will need to approve 1 transaction</p>
) : nft?.minted ? (
<b>This NFT has already been minted</b>
) : (
<Button
colorScheme="purple"
m="0.5rem"
onClick={() => mintNft(nft?.id)}
>
Mint
</Button>
)}
</Flex>
</Box>
))}
</SimpleGrid>
);
} else {
return <Heading>Loading...</Heading>;
}
};

export default Nfts;

Before you deploy to Vercel or share this project, don’t forget to import the Nfts.tsx component to index.tsx so that index.tsx now looks like this:

index.tsx
import { Flex, Heading, Button } from "@chakra-ui/react";
import { useAddress, useMetamask } from "@thirdweb-dev/react";
import type { NextPage } from "next";
import Nfts from "../components/Nfts";

const Home: NextPage = () => {
// Use address and connect with metamask
const address = useAddress();
const connectWithMetamask = useMetamask();

return (
<div>
{address ? (
<Flex mt="5rem" alignItems="center" flexDir="column">
<Heading mb="2.5rem">Select an NFT to Mint</Heading>
<Nfts />
</Flex>
) : (
<Flex mt="5rem" alignItems="center" flexDir="column">
<Button size="lg" colorScheme="pink" onClick={connectWithMetamask}>
Connect Metamask Wallet
</Button>
</Flex>
)}
</div>
);
};

export default Home;

Incredible 🎉  We have completed this project to allow users to select which 1-of-1 NFT they want to mint from a collection. Don’t forget to check out the thirdweb portal for more guides, code examples, and all the documentation.